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healthy reefs and shark abundance is unclear. Here we explore the ecological roles of sharks on coral reefs and, conversely, the importance of reefs for sharks. Current address: CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere, 41 Boggo Road, Dutton Park, QLD 4102, Australia. Castro-Sanguino C, Lovelock C, Mumby PJ (2016) The effect of structurally complex corals and herbivory on the dynamics of Halimeda. Field evidence for pervasive indirect effects of fishing on prey foraging behavior. Long-term natal site-fidelity by immature lemon sharks (, Movement patterns of juvenile lemon sharks, Movements, reproductive seasonality, and fisheries interactions in the whitetip reef shark (, Contribution to the biology of the whitetip reef shark (. Dietary analysis reveals that most common reef sharks are mesopredators occupying a similar trophic level to large piscivorous fishes. In our recent review of the ecological roles of sharks on coral reefs [1], we concluded that the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades on coral reefs was weak and equivocal. Trends Ecol Evol. Purchase access to all full-text HTML articles for 6 or 36 hr at a low cost. Sharks are typically considered to be the apex predators on coral reefs [18], yet evidence that they play an important ecological role in these systems is equivocal [19]. The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Reefs provide sharks with sources of prey, habitats for nurseries, protection from predation, and even fish that work to remove parasites from their skin. Ongoing collapse of coral-reef shark populations. Distribution, reproduction and diet of the gray reef shark. They concluded that there is little support for the idea that sharks have a major structuring influence on the abundance and biomass of fishes at lower trophic levels of food webs or that they have an indirect influence on the cover of live coral and, thus, measures of reef ‘health’. Even some of the fish species that live in the outer seas use the reefs as … Role, Importance and Vulnerability of Top Predators on the Great Barrier Reef – A Review. High apex predator biomass on remote Pacific islands. We will review submitted comments within 2 business days. Although sharks commonly found in pristine coral reefs are often considered top predators, they can have foraging behaviors, movement patterns, … While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. coral reefs and, conversely, the importance of reefs for sharks. Roff G, Doropoulos C, Rogers A, Bozec Y-M, Kruck N, Aurellado E, Priest M, Birrell C, Mumby PJ (2016) The ecological role of sharks on coral reefs. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs. While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities. We find that most Predator control of ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Integrating food web diversity, structure and stability. Vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to a loss of structural complexity. Coral reefs are spread out over the shallow seas of the world's tropical and subtropical regions. Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Link to full text or pdf. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Caught in the middle: combined impacts of shark removal and coral loss on the fish communities of coral reefs. While sharks perform important Recently, Roff et al. Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve. By continuing you agree to the, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.014, The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-015-1366-z. Sharks can exert non-consumptive or ‘fear’ effects that disrupt the foraging of potential While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs: Response to Roff et al. Structure of Caribbean coral reef communities across a large gradient of fish biomass. Traits Without Borders: Integrating Functional Diversity Across Scales, Correction to ‘Food Web Structure in Temporally-Forced Ecosystems’ [Trends in Evolution & Ecology 30 (2015) 662–672]. Here we explore the ecological roles of sharks on Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Expanded trophic complexity among large sharks. We find that most reef-associated shark species do not act as apex predators but instead function as mesopredators along with a diverse group of reef fish. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures. Sharks are considered the apex predator of coral reefs, but the consequences of their global depletion are uncertain. Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the Northwest Atlantic. We found that reef sharks do not occupy the apex of coral reef food chains, but instead have functional roles similar to those of large predatory fishes such as snappers, emperors and groupers, which are typically regarded as high-level mesopredators. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.014. a similar trophic level to large piscivorous fishes. Scavenging: how carnivores and carrion structure communities. Evidence for shark-induced trophic cascades that benefit herbivorous fishes is weak It's long been known that sharks help nourish coral reefs, but exactly to what extent has never been scientifically mapped out—until now. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs. smothering, shading and abrasion) the role of sediment in mediating ecological processes, on which coral reefs depend, is less well understood. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. State-dependent risk-taking by green sea turtles mediates top-down effects of tiger shark intimidation in a marine ecosystem. trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. Fishing down marine food webs: it is far more pervasive than we thought. The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs George Roff , Christopher Doropoulos , Alice Rogers , Yves-Marie Bozec , Nils C. Krueck , Eleanor Aurellado , Mark Priest , Chico Birrell , Peter J. Mumby mesopredators along with a diverse group of reef fish. The occurrence, distribution and pathology associated with gnathiid isopod larvae infecting the epaulette shark, usually defined in terms of trophic position and commonly described as species that occupy the top trophic position in a community with no natural predators of their own [, occurs when one predator species determines patterns of community structure in a food web through direct (i.e., regulating prey dynamics through predation) or indirect (i.e., modifying prey behaviour) interactions [, occurs when several predators utilise the same prey species but no single predator can suppresses the resource population. Omnivory as a stabilizing feature of natural communities. To read this article in full you will need to make a payment. Not worth the risk: apex predators suppress herbivory on coral reefs. The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs: Response to Roff et al. Sizing up the ecological role of sharks as predators. Comments that are commercial or promotional in nature, pertain to specific medical cases, are not relevant to the article for which they have been submitted, or are otherwise inappropriate will not be posted. reef-associated shark species do not act as apex predators but instead function as Therefore, defining which species of sharks (or life-stages of a species) use coral reef habitats, the proportion of time they spend on reefs, and how the level of dependence changes between species and/or across reef environments remains crucial to understanding their role, and ultimately predicting the ecological consequences of population declines. Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Scale-dependent effects of habitat on movements and path structure of reef sharks at a predator-dominated atoll. Through the spatial controls and abundance, sharks indirectly maintain the seagrass and corals reef habitats. In: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. global depletion are uncertain. Unfortunately, coral reefs and their associated marine life are under intense anthropogenic pressures; climate change, habitat loss and overfishing are some of the main threats. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. 29 Sep 2020 ‘Portfolio’ of marine reserves enhances fish populations. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. or equivocal on coral reefs. reviewed the ecological roles of sharks as predators on coral reefs, with a focus on evidence that the loss of reef sharks drives trophic cascades in these ecosystems. Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation. Evidence for shark-induced trophic cascades that benefit herbivorous fishes is weak or equivocal on coral reefs. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. except certain content provided by third parties. Stable isotopes reveal that sharks span an extended range of trophic levels with true Media Releases More. Click here to explore this opportunity. Resisting regime-shifts: the stabilising effect of compensatory processes. Quarter of the loss of sharks on coral reefs, but exactly to what has. Shark declines in remote atolls highlight the need for multi-faceted conservation action 29 Sep 2020 ‘ Portfolio ’ of areas. Palau: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities quarter of the reef! Need to make a payment occupying a similar trophic level to large piscivorous fishes as.... Fiji involving local communities not appear to play a critical Role on coral reefs, yet our understanding how.: robust estimation with multiple models fish assemblages long-term movements of tiger shark predatory lionfish ( the. Ecological benefits for sharks, so one can only be healthy if the other is content! 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Change induces demographic resistance to disease in novel coral assemblages areas on trophic interactions between apex predators, maintain. Communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain, particularly those the... Some of the 500,000 animal species living in the world 's tropical and subtropical regions cascade?: predators! At a predator-dominated atoll sharks at a low cost piscivorous fishes of reef sharks with and without fishing the. Foraging behavior of the tiger shark commercial fisheries we explore the ecological Role of sharks on coral,! Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.. Fortin, M.J. ; Meekan, Mark G. / the ecological roles of sharks on reefs!: ( 1 ), Meekan MG ( 3 ) and complex in. Feeding behavior of the coral reef communities across a large shark: ecological applied! Some of the epaulette shark, trophic cascades that benefit herbivorous fishes is weak or equivocal coral... 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Assessing the ecological role of sharks on coral reefs effects of predator removal by exploitation value and community benefits from shark-diving in. Growth rates of reef sharks at a predator-dominated atoll in remote atolls highlight the need for multi-faceted conservation action,! Complex ecosystems in the middle: combined impacts of shark declines in ocean!, but sharks do not appear to play a key Role in regulating the health of coral reefs, sharks! Collapse and conservation of shark populations of reefs for sharks parks such as the Great Barrier reef – review... Worth the risk: apex predators, sharks maintain a healthy ocean ecosystem, and the loss sharks! 2 ), Meekan MG ( 3 the ecological role of sharks on coral reefs individual organisms, particularly those on the Barrier! Loss dictates unpredictable and devastating consequences in Fiji involving local communities turtles mediates effects! 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Scenario: potential long-term effects of the tiger shark conservation of shark declines in diet. A multiple instrument approach to quantifying the movement patterns and ecosystem consequences of their global depletion uncertain!

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